was first built in the XI century
The Count of Mauguio offered two large parcels of land to
Guilhem as a reward for his loyalty. Guilhem's heirs then
developped their familly strenght on this land which was called
the Montpellier bourg and was bordering the Montpellieret
village which belonged to the Eveque of Maguelone.
It is in the XIII century that the two villages united within
the fortified was of the newly created town.
In 1204, the town becomes spanish after the
wedding of Guilhem VIII daughter, Marie of Montpellier, with
Peter of Aragon. Montpellier was sold back to the king of
France in 1349.
This periode was extreamly important for the economic development
of the town. The Montpellier mercants were trading with the
East buying various spices and therapeutical plants. The specificity
of those was analysed and studied in the newly created medical
university. Law and art schools emerges at the same period.
The University of Montpellier grew in strenght from then on
and attracted students from all the kingdom. (Rablais finished
his medecine degree there in 1530)
At the end of the XIV
century Montpellier started to declin because of
the various medival illnesses that destroyed a large part
of its population such as the pest and the famine that often
came with it.
It is with the arrival of Jacques Coeur the king's (Charles
VII) man in charge of the royal silver that Montpellier regained
its reputation as a town of trade in the XV century. Unfortunatly
the incorporation of Montpellier to Provence (a french powerful
region) definatly put an end to the development of Montpellier
as Marseille became the main trading port with the East.
In the XVI century Montpellier was affected by the
first war of religion between the catholic and the
protestants. These fought for the domination of the town and
successively gained it. In 1622 Louis XIII finaly put an end
to it and regained control of the town
His troops made the siege o Montpellier over three month.
Richelieu built a citadel in order to watch and control the
town. As a consequence many protestants left the town which
benefited the catholic 'Montpellierains'.